India: the Urban Transition – a Case Study of Development Urbanism
Book (344 pages). Concept and content by Henrik Valeur (author). Copy-editing and proof-reading by Dan A. Marmorstein and Regitze Hess. Layout by Gilbert Hansen. Published by The Architectural Publisher B, 2014.
Comment by the Indian architect Rahul Mehrotra, Professor and Chair of Urban Planning and Design, Harvard University: ”I very much enjoyed the range of issues touched upon and based on first hand experiences! The fine grain reading of issues in the Indian city is an important contribution so is the attempt to connect so many dots to make sense of the moving targets we encounter in Urbanism in India.”
Excerpt of review by Prof. Preeti Chopra, University of Wisconsin-Madison: This well-supported study, excavating some critical problems facing South Asian cities and offering a range of solutions, is a fascinating and invigorating work that deserves a wide readership.
India: the Urban Transition‘ ISBN: 978-87-92700-09-4
A new voice in urban politics
Interview with Ashwin Mahesh. Published in ‘India: the Urban Transition’ ISBN: 978-87-92700-09-4, 2014.
Interviewee: Ashwin Mahesh is a scientist who turned environmental activist, development worker and technology entrepreneur before becoming a leading candidate for a newly formed national political party, the Lok Satta, contesting from the city of Bangalore. In this interview he discusses problems of urban management in India today and proposes public participation and community building as means to solve the problems.
Interview [134K] pdf
Running out of water-in India
Paper published in Alog 15.12.2013 and ‘India: the Urban Transition’ ISBN: 978-87-92700-09-4, 2014.
Abstract: While “the green revolution” certainly helped prevent famine, the introduction – in India during the late 1960s – of chemical pesticides and fertilizers, water-intensive crops and groundwater irrigation has contributed significantly to the pollution and depletion of water and also to population growth, which, in combination, have reduced the amount of available water per person by more than 2/3, causing water stress today and possible scarcity within the next few decades. So far, most of the population growth has taken place in rural areas. But from now on, almost all of the growth is expected to take place in urban areas. The future water situation in India, therefore, will increasingly be determined by the capability of its cities to conserve and recycle water.
Paper [763K] pdf
Making India slum-free
Paper published in Alog 04.10.2013 and ‘India: the Urban Transition’ ISBN: 978-87-92700-09-4, 2014.
Abstract: This paper examines the uncertainty of the numbers related to slums in India, the promises that are being made and the programs that are being initiated to eradicate slums. And it examines the failure of these promises and programs: a failure that is not only depriving poor rural migrants of the chance to improve their lives by moving to cities but is also depriving society of these people’s productivity.
Paper [515K] pdf
The slum dweller
Essay published in Alog 24.06.2013 and ‘India: the Urban Transition’ ISBN: 978-87-92700-09-4, 2014.
Excerpt: Pawan is 26; he’s a good-looking guy, with a charming smile and eyes that inspire confidence. Furthermore, he holds a university degree in geography and is working for the High Court of Haryana and Punjab as a clerk. It’s only a temporary job but he is also taking classes in the evening to pass the examination to qualify for taking on a higher and steadier position with the government.
Essay [88K] pdf
Alternatives to the Automobile in the Indian City
Commentary published in Economic & Political Weekly, Vol. 48, Issue No. 47, 23 Nov, 2013 and ‘India: the Urban Transition’ ISBN: 978-87-92700-09-4, 2014. Modified versions published in Alog 02.04.2013 (“Car-free campus in Bangalore”) and Alog 09.04.2013 (“Car-free sector in Chandigarh”), The Global Urbanist 02.04.2013 (“Trialling the future of urban transit …”) and The Global Urbanist 09.04.2013 (“Taking the car out of Corbusier …”) and World Streets 17.12.2013 (“A car-free sector in the middle of Le Corbusier’s city”).
Excerpt: For the past century, the automobile has captured the imagination of people around the globe and for many, it still constitutes the ultimate symbol of having achieved middle-class status. According to a rapidly-growing number of academic studies, however, the automobile may have detrimental effects on human health and life quality, especially in cities, where the concentration of automobiles contributes significantly to pollution, environmental degradation, social isolation, stress and physical inactivity.
Commentary [131K] pdf
The horrendous costs of motorized transportation in (Indian) cities
Paper published in Alog 26.03.2013 and ‘India: the Urban Transition’ ISBN: 978-87-92700-09-4, 2014. Modified versions published in The Global Urbanist 26.03.2013 and World Streets 30.03.2013.
“Every once in a while an article pops in over the transom, as happened this morning, that provides us with a good, independent checklist of the woes and, if not the solutions, at least the directions in which solutions might usefully be sought to our transportation related tribulations. And this carefully crafted piece by Danish architect Henrik Valeur is a good case in point. His independent out of the box perspective leads him to making comments, links and pointing out relationships which take him well beyond the usual transportation purview. And if his immediate source of comment in this article is the awful, the quite unnecesssary situation on the streets of India, the points he makes have universal application. Healthy stuff for planners and policy makers.” Eric Britton, Editor, World Streets, 2013
Paper [388K] pdf
Bangalore – the urban schism
Essay published in Alog 04.03.2013 and ‘India: the Urban Transition’ ISBN: 978-87-92700-09-4, 2014.
Excerpt: By the beginning of the 21st century, Bangalore had emerged as a global hub for software development, production and services, with most of the world’s leading IT companies being located there and two of the leading Indian IT companies being headquartered there.
Essay [112K] pdf
Grow your own food!
Article with Arshinder Kaur. Published in Economic & Political Weekly, Vol. 47, Issue No. 24, 16 Jun, 2012, Alog 16.06.2012 and ‘India: the Urban Transition’ ISBN: 978-87-92700-09-4, 2014.
Excerpt: Growing your own food in the city is becoming a global trend: from growing vegetables in recycled plastic bottles in a loft in New York City or in a slum dwelling in Manila to community kitchen gardens in a posh neighborhood in London or in a favela in Sao Paulo, people are experimenting with different ways of becoming self-sufficient with food in urban settings.
Article [81K] pdf
Hvad har vi lært af Chandigarh? (What has Chandigarh taught us?)
Article published in Byplan Vol. 64, no. 1, 2012.
Excerpt: I had been invited to Chandigarh in October 2010 to give the Le Corbusier Memorial Lecture and conduct a three-days workshop at Chandigarh College of Architecture, but ended up staying for half a year to work with the city architect, Sumit Kaur, and a group of students from the college, on a new master plan for the city.
Article [89K] pdf
If the intention is to create a better world / Hvis meningen er, at skabe en bedre verden
Article, 2012 (unpublished).
Excerpt: When we (Danes) want to describe the results of the development assistance we provide, we call it “The World’s Best News”. Several independent observers believe, however, that the last fifty years of Western development assistance has largely been wasted and that in many places the “assistance” has impeded rather than assisted development. A reality check is needed!
Article [75K] pdf Article [74K] pdf
Chandigarh – an Indian Adventure / Chandigarh – et indisk eventyr
Essay, 2011. Published in Journal of Architecture (India) Vol. 1, No. 2, 2012, Alog 19.02.2012 and ‘India: the Urban Transition’ ISBN: 978-87-92700-09-4, 2014.
Excerpt: After more than 300 years of British colonization, the inclusive and contradictory India was no longer capable of holding herself together. At independence in 1947, India split into two, and subsequently three, independent nations. Thus the capital of Punjab, Lahore, came to be located in Pakistan, while the Indian part of Punjab came to lack a capital. The first Indian Prime Minister, Jawaharlal Nehru, therefore decided to build a new one.
Essay [156K] pdf Essay [106K] pdf
Shanghai – the Hyper-modern City
Essay, 2011. Published in Alog 01.07.2012.
Excerpt: In an essay from 1863, “Le peintre de la vie moderne” (“The painter of modern life”), the French poet and art critic Charles Baudelaire, defined modernity as “the transitory, the fugitive, the contingent” which characterizes the present, in contrast to the eternal and immutable.
Essay [67K] pdf
The Godfather of the Hyper-modern City
Short story, 2011. Published in Alog 30.06.2012.
Excerpt: “I apologize”. Chen breathe. “I apologize to the party, the people and my family”. He sits down. A broken man who has lost everything. The last two years he has spent in prison in Beijing and under house arrest in a distant province. It is spring 2008 and he is now sitting in a courtroom in Tianjin, waiting for his verdict. He risks the death penalty.
Short story [59K] pdf
Bedre byer-bedre liv (Better City-Better Life)
Review published in Arkitekten Vol. 112, No. 7, 2010.
Excerpt: The theme of World Expo 2010 in Shanghai is Better City – Better Life. The challenge is not only to improve the living conditions for half of humanity who already live in cities, but also to give hundred of thousands of people who move to cities every day a change for a better life.
Review [71K] pdf
Shanghai-Beijing – byhistorier og moderne byer (Shanghai-Beijing – urban stories and modern cities)
Booklet (44 pages). Concept, content, editing, layout and publishing by Henrik Valeur (author), 2010.
Excerpt: In China traditional gardens are perceived as architectural masterpieces in which nature, poetry and art is merged to please and move the mind.
The Poor are Moving to Town / Verdens fattige flytter til byen
Op-ed article published in Information 21.06.2010 and Alog 12.03.2012.
Excerpt: According to the UN, the world will be populated with two billion more people within the next twenty to thirty years, almost all of whom will inhabit cities in the developing world. Building cities for nearly 100 million additional people every year over the next twenty to thirty years is a challenge, but also an opportunity of enormous dimensions. Depending on how it is done, it could either become one of humanity’s greatest successes or one of our worst failures.
Article [58K] pdf Article [66K] pdf
Er tættere byer mere bæredygtige? (Are Dense Cities More Sustainable?)
Article published in Arkitekten Vol. 111, No. 12, 2009.
Excerpt: If urban densification has to make sense it must be made more attractive to live in cities. To achieve this, planning and design processes must be made more open and inclusive. In a Danish context the challenge is also to make existing suburbs more sustainable, because this is where most people live even if the density is actually very low.
Article [86K] pdf
Vores økologiske fodspor (Our Ecological Footprint)
Op-ed article published in Politiken 14.08.2009.
Excerpt: Cities and citizens must adapt to nature as the reverse is not possible.
Article [226K] pdf
Byerne og klimaet (The Cities and the Climate)
Article published in TEGN no. 2, 2009.
Excerpt: It is obviously important to develop new solutions, but it is also important that these solutions are affordable for ordinary people. Thus it is not only a matter of inventing new solutions but also of reinventing existing ones.
Article [735K] pdf
Manifesto, 2008. Published in Alog 12.02.2012.
Excerpt: The 20th century marked a quantum leap in human evolution: the transition from rural to urban life. Resulting in enormous – and enormously disparate – increases in material welfare.
Manifesto [53K] pdf
Visionen om den sociale by er global (The Social City – A Global Vision)
Article published in DAC News, 2008.
Excerpt: Cities have always attracted new ideas, thoughts and dreams. The difference is that the new now comes from anywhere. And that it comes faster, much faster!
Article [56K] pdf
Sustainable Urban Development
Comments to the IFHP Ranko Radovic Student Competition. Published in ‘Futures of Cities’, pp. 228-35, ISBN 978-87-87136-81-5, 2008.
Excerpt: Sustainable urban development is not only about environmental issues. It is also about job creation, social stability, education, healthcare, life-styles and other factors that are determinant for the long-term success of the development.
Comments [2.6MB] pdf
The Harmonious City
Exhibition catalogue (84 pages). Shanghai Urban Planning Exhibition Center. Concept, editing and layout by Henrik Valeur (Editor), Zhang Meng and Xia Zhen. Published by the Danish Architecture Centre, 2007. Contributions by UiD, DAC, The Danish Ministry for the Environment, The Danish Transport Research Institute, The Municipality of Copenhagen, The Municipality of Odense, APV, BioKube, Building Heritage of Denmark, CIOS, Danfoss, DHI, Grontmij | Carl Bro, Kontrapunkt, Roxul / Rockwool, Velux, Vestas. Published by the Danish Architecture Centre.
‘The Harmonious City’ ISBN 87-90668-64-2
Lost in Transition
Paper presented at the 51st IFHP World Congress in Copenhagen, 2007. Abstract published in Alog 24.02.2012.
Excerpt: Today, the real driver of economic development in China is the speculative investments in capital and real estate markets. These massive – if somehow intangible – investments are accompanied by huge public spending on urban and infrastructural projects. Together they lead to the explosive growth of service industries and the build-up of entirely new industries, which in turn lead to individual prosperity and dramatic improvements of the living conditions for some 20 million urban immigrants each year.
Abstract [75K] pdf
CO-EVOLUTION: Danish/Chinese Collaboration on Sustainable Urban Development in China
Exhibition catalogue (186 pages). The Venice Biennale, 10th International Architecture Exhibition and the 2nd Architectural Biennial Beijing. Concept and editing by Henrik Valeur (Editor). Layout by Zhang Meng and the project teams. Published by the Danish Architecture Centre, 2006. Contributions by Henrik Valeur and UiD, Kent Martinussen and DAC | Danish Architecture Centre, CEBRA + Tsinghua, COBE + CQU, EFFEKT + Tongji and TRANSFORM + XAUAT. Published by the Danish Architecture Centre and by China Electric Power Press.
Excerpt from the curator’s statement: Sustainable urban development is a global issue. Not only in the geographical sense, whereby we all depend on the same resources and are affected by the same pollution, but also in the professional sense in that no single discipline can solve these problems alone. Thus, sustainable urban development must be thought out in collaboration between various peoples and disciplines.
‘CO-EVOLUTION’ ISBN 87-90668-61-8 ‘CO-EVOLUTION’ ISBN 978-7-5083-5323-4
Thesis with Karin Lindgren. Presented at the Xi’an International Conference of Architecture and Technology, 2006.
Excerpt: The processes of rapid and extensive urbanization have greatly improved the living conditions for a vast number of Chinese people during the past decades. But it has also put tremendous pressure on the environment, which can be experienced as increasing pollution and lack of natural resources.
Thesis [82K] pdf
CO-EVOLUTION: Curator’s Statement
Statement published in ‘CO-EVOLUTION’ ISBN 87-90668-61-8, 2006.
Excerpt: CO-EVOLUTION has primarily been a learning process. One of the things we have learned is that there is no simple or single answer to the question of “how to improve people’s living conditions without exhausting the very resources needed to sustain a better life?”. But that there is an almost infinite number of possible solutions.
Statement [246K] pdf Statement [919K] pdf
Paper with Fredrik Fritzson. Presented at the XXIInd World Architecture Congress in Istanbul, 2005.
Excerpt: According to the UN, 3/4 of the population of the industrialized world live in cities, but these are not necessarily cities in the traditional sense. People may choose to live in rural settings, while still having direct access to most urban facilities. The urban region includes not only the city and its suburbs, but also the provincial towns, the rural districts and the nature reserves. In fact, it has no clear external borders. Instead it has plenty of internal ones.
Abstract [51K] pdf
A New Future for Planning
Exhibition catalogue (88 pages). The 6th European Biennal of Towns and Town Planners. Concept and editing by Henrik Valeur (Editor). Published by The Architectural Publisher B, 2005. Contributions by BLANKSPACE, COPENHAGENOFFICE, EFFEKT, FORCE4, MUTOPIA, NORD, TESTBEDSTUDIO and UiD.
Excerpt from the introduction by Henrik Valeur and Claus Peder Pedersen: The offices share a common understanding of the challenges and potentials of contemporary planning, but use this understanding to create different niches, different interests, which are reflected in the methods and tools presented by them in this publication.
‘A New Future for Planning’ ISBN 87-990146-5-3 ‘A New Future for Planning’ e-book [16.4MB]
The Perfect Plan
Essay with Claus Peder Pedersen. Published in ‘A NEW FUTURE FOR PLANNING’ ISBN 87-990146-5-3, 2005.
Excerpt: Maybe the planning of the 21st century does not (only) have to be about regulations and restrictions. Maybe the loss of power of the traditional planner isn’t such a bad thing after all. Maybe it is the beginning of a new future for planning.
Essay [74K] pdf
Bedre byrum i Roskilde (Better Urban Spaces in Roskilde)
Article with Jan Bille. Published in Stads- og havneingeniøren no. 2, 2003.
Excerpt: Citizens hoped for a greater insight into and influence on the decisions regarding the planning of their surroundings. How can we make use of this engagement to make better plans for all? As it now stands, the many diverse interests manifest themselves most often through conflicts, only allowing for planning through consensus in terms of the lowest common denominator.
Article [77K] pdf
Essay, 2002 (unpublished).
Excerpt: While hundreds of homeless people live in cardboard homes on the sidewalks of Skid Row, others pay hundreds of dollars for a new shirt from one of the exclusive fashion shops along Rodeo Drive. With its composition of 3rd world slum areas and the most extravagant luxury of the western world, Jewish business districts and Muslim mosques, black ghettos and Hispanic barrios, hippie cultures and fanatical sects, LA is not only one of the world’s most heterogeneous regions, it is as such one of the most radical democratic experiments yet to be seen.
Essay [915K] pdf
Exhibition catalogue (26 pages). Form/Design Center, Malmö. Concept, content, editing, layout and publishing by Henrik Valeur (Editor) and Fredrik Fritzson, 2001.
Excerpt: As a trans-national region the Öresund region differs from many other regions. Local discussions often focus on specific historical or cultural conditions, which either connect or disconnect Danes and Swedes, but the inhabitants of the Öresund region do not constitute two homogenuous populations.
region.CoMa [4.2MB] region.CoMa [4.2MB]
Essay, 2001 (unpublished).
Excerpt: Looking at film footage and development schemes documenting the suburbanization around Copenhagen during the late 60’s and early 70’s, it is striking to see how directly principles of temporal organization were transformed into principles of physical organization.
Essay [49K] pdf
Exhibition catalogue (32 pages). Arkitekturgalleriet 9, DAC | Danish Architecture Centre. Concept and content by Henrik Valeur. Editing by Eric Messerschmidt. Layout by Gilbert Hansen. Published by The Architectural Publisher B, 1999. Contributions by Alex Wall, Christophe Cornubert, MIKAN, njiric+njiric, WEST8 and UiD/Henrik Valeur et. al. Published by The Architectural Publisher B.
Excerpt from the introduction by Eric Messerschmidt: ”99 is not a presentation of architecture in the usual sense. Nor is it a display of a specific style, theory or ism, defining itself by distancing itself from standard architecture. In the words of the author it is an exhibition that attempts to substitute architecture with a capital “A” in favor of an understanding of architecture as a materialization of our time.
‘’99’ ISBN 87-90668-14-6
Essay published in ‘’99’ ISBN 87-90668-14-6, 1999.
Excerpt: I am sitting in a house in the suburbs talking to a woman who has asked me to design a house for her somewhere else in suburbia. She is quite ordinary and the job seems straightforward. But I quickly realize that I cannot decide about her everyday life and that she would never live the way I had in mind. I also realize there are no authorities I can turn to for advice on how this house should be designed – least of all her, because she is never the same.
Essay [46K] pdf
Essay, 1999 (unpublished).
Excerpt: 20th century urbanization was not about people moving into cities but about cities moving out to the people!
Essay [93K] pdf
Den Nye By (The New City)
Essay, 1998 (unpublished).
Excerpt: The suburb is arguably the most convincing expression of modern reality. Here you meet modern-day versions of Baudelaire’s “le flaneur” and patients who just got up from Freud’s couch; you see Warhol’s and Magritte’s paintings paint themselves; and you listen to Schönberg’s compositions accompany Jim Morrison’s voice. The cognitive influence of the moving picture becomes evident and some of physic’s abstract theories become overwhelming concrete.
Essay [77K] pdf
Hr O (Mr O)
Short story, 1996 (unpublished).
Excerpt: Mr. O has a shareholding in the firm A/S. He has never shown up for an annual meeting. Honestly speaking it would also be a waste of time, because it is not a forum where O, in spite of his modest holding of B-shares, would be heard. Nor does he for that matter have anything to say, because just as no one in the firm Inc. knows the person O, his own knowledge of the firm and its activities is in the same way rather peripheral.
Short story [48K] pdf